Something happened in the past that still affects my life today…
I will never forget this date, September 19, 2008!
I watched a lot of news on TV about violence crimes, assaults, battery, homicide, etc. But I cannot imagine that I became one of the violence crime victims and was sent to a hospital on September 19, 2008!
Here’s what happened that day. Around 11:30 that morning, I just got out from the San Francisco Shopping Center, and when I just stepped out from the shopping center, a crazy white guy, much looked like a homeless, approached from somewhere near the BART station. He yelled at me madly, like “LURRRRRRRRR~~~LURRRRRR~~~~LURRRRR", like that! I didn’t even have any idea for what and why he yelled at me, that crazy guy use his damn fist PUNCHED my left eye! He attacked me very hardly, and my glasses was broken immediately and dropped on the street, my left eye just above the eyelid was cut by my broken glasses, and BLEEDING! BLEEDING~~~~~ Because the place of incident is the tourist hotspot, many people witnessed the whole incident. As I was wounded, many nice people, including security guards from the shopping center, the street merchants, as well as some walk-by people helped me a lot, and gave me some basic treatment on my wound. A Mandarin-speaking street merchant gave me a chair to rest, then a security guard from the shopping center handed me a bag of ice. Another woman, who claimed that she was a nurse, took a look on my wound. All of them talked to me, and tried to make me feel better. At that time, I thought the only thing I could do is keep myself calm, and told myself, there’s no big deal, just a little cut, and I was okay.
During the time I was waiting for further treatment on my wound, the police officers and an ambulance arrived, a medical staff took me into the ambulance, and ready to the hospital. Before we departed, a police officer asked me some questions about the incident, then the officer gave me a piece of paper in order to have further investigation, and I should have that piece of information to obtain a police report, and the medical staff told me that all cost of the treatment will be covered because I was an assault victim, all I have to do was to send a copy of police report to the hospital. Few minutes later, we arrived the hospital, the Emergency Room Doctor gave me treatment on my wound after he checked if there was any serious problem on my other parts of body. As my condition got stable, and proper treatment was given, I was released from the hospital about half an hour later. The whole assault incident, which made me wounded, was finally over.
That was my first experience of being attacked on the street. Also, that was my unforgettable day ever, I never forget September 19, 2008! This horrible experience remains in my heart forever.
Finding images and multimedia for your news project (without breaking copyright laws)
Whether you need an image for your blog post, a soundtrack to your video or that YouTube clip for your documentary, if you’re dealing with multimedia it’s likely you’ll end up using – or wanting to use – someone else’s work as part of your own.
Here are some basic tips on finding and using multimedia across the web in a way that won’t (hopefully) land you in hot water.
The public domain myth
One of the mistakes that has repeatedly landed journalists and their employers in trouble is confusion over the term “public domain“.
Public domain has two possible meanings. In copyright terms, public domain refers to work whose copyright has expired, meaning that anyone can use it without having to ask the copyright holder. Disney – a fierce lobbyist itself for extending copyright – has used ‘public domain’ material as the basis for most of its cartoons, from the work of the Grimm Brothers to a host of other fairy tales, myths and legends.
For example, pretty much every piece of media, almost by definition, is “in the public domain”. Newspapers and magazines sit on the newsstands; television and radio reports are broadcast on huge city centre screens and speakers.
But if you take that content and reproduce it in its entirety without permission, you are breaking copyright law.
The $7,500 copyright scam
If you need any persuading about this, read this post about a copyright scam whereby images are pushed to the top of Google Images search results pages, and then bloggers sued for using them without permission.
It seems odd that media organisations so used to protecting their own, very public, content, should think that another person’s photo, or video, or report, should be fair game because it is “in the public domain”. But they do.
But never assume something is public domain because it is “in public”.
One point to make: while an image, story, or composition may be out of copyright, its performance, re-design or re-telling may not.
Just ask Disney.
Creative Commons – making UGC copyright explicit
If you’re dealing with content that’s been published on a platform like Flickr or YouTube, you may be able to find out the copyright status of that content relatively easily.
Both allow users to easily establish copyright through the Creative Commons licence. You can either look for that licence in the relevant part of the page hosting the content.
On YouTube it is under the video:
On Flickr this is on the right hand side under License:
Make sure you click on that licence to find out what terms it requires.
Creative Commons, for example, has a number of elements:
Whether the material can be used only in noncommercial contexts, or for commercial use as well
Whether the material can be adapted and changed, or must be left unchanged
Whether you must use the same CC licence if you use this material (e.g. you cannot use a noncommercial licence but then allow your work to be used commercially)
Whether you must attribute the work (this is where many people breach the licence)
If you’re unsure of where your work fits against those criteria (for example, whether it’s considered as “commercial”), then approach the copyright holder for clarity. Remember that the CC licence is only a default position, and can be negotiated. Also, if you cannot get any response and decide to publish anyway, your attempts to contact the copyright holder will be important if there are any legal proceedings.
If you want others to publish their content under a CC licence, it helps if you publish at least some of your own work under a CC licence too. Indeed, if it contains other CC material, their licences may require you to.
Flickr and YouTube aren’t the only sites that use Creative Commons licences, of course. To search for media under a CC licence (including on those sites), use the search facility on the Creative Commons site and select the engine you want to search through.
If you’re running a hyperlocal site, or any site that needs images of places, check out Geograph, which hosts Creative Commons-licensed images of locations around the UK.
There are also specialist sites for sharing music under CC, such as Freesound.
Even if the media you are interested in using does not use a CC licence, of course, you can still approach the copyright holder for permission to use it.
Attribution does not cover you for copyright
Another mistake that some people make is to believe that simply linking to the source, or naming the photographer/source, is enough to avoid copyright issues.
This is only the case if the licence for the material says so.
Copyright has two elements: moral rights, and economic rights.
The moral right is the right to be identified as the author of a piece of work. This is the attribution which is in pretty much every copyright licence, Creative Commons or otherwise.
But it’s not the right that most people sue over.
The economic right is the right to right to “allow or prevent the copying of their work or the performance of their work in public” (IPO). This translates into the ability to earn money from a piece of work. And this is what people largely sue over.
Attributing a photo only covers the moral right. It does not mean you won’t be sued.
If, then, you have used an image, video or audio without the permission of the rights holder (granted through a Creative Commons licence or directly to you through correspondence) then you are still probably breaking copyright law.
Embedding versus re-broadcasting
If the media is hosted on a platform like YouTube, you may be able to embed it on a webpage without seeking permission at all: if the creator* has enabled embedding then they would have little argument in suing for breach of copyright because:
By enabling embedding they have given an ‘implied’ right; and
They could stop you publishing it instantly by disabling embedding.
Also, your embedding of their media would not lead to any loss of revenue (as advertising can be embedded too), so it is unlikely that there would be any damages to sue for.
*note: this does not apply to video created by other people and uploaded by someone other than the copyright holder.
“In essence, anyone will be able to visit Getty Images’ library of content, select an image and copy an embed HTML code to use that image on their own websites. Getty Images will serve the image in a embedded player – very much like YouTube currently does with its videos – which will include the full copyright information and a link back to the image’s dedicated licensing page on the Getty Images website.”
Of course, it’s one thing to talk about the strict legal position, and another to talk about what actually happens. Journalists regularly publish content that breaks the law – but make a judgement about the likelihood of ending up in court over that. For example, I can say that the Queen is corrupt (a defamatory statement) and be almost certain that the Queen is not going to sue me (because she has a history of not doing so).
Media lawyers are not just there to advise publishers on their strict legal position, but on the balance of risk involved, and how to reduce those risks. While you cannot always avoid risks, you can avoid them in simple ways:
Always try to establish the copyright situation regarding any media you use: who holds the copyright (there may be more than one copyright owner: for example, performer and composer), and what are the terms of the licence?
Try to contact the copyright holder if you’re in any doubt – even if you can’t contact them your efforts to do so will help you if you do end up in court.
Always attribute authorship and link to the source (this can be done in title credits, captions and/or links on the host webpage). Copyright claims normally revolve around loss of earnings: anything that may have contributed to that (i.e. not linking to the source) will likely add to damages.
Minimal cost and royalty free
‘Royalty free’ is a vague term which is often confused with, simply, ‘free’. It most often refers to media which is paid for once and can then be used multiple times in different contexts.
For example, you might pay for a CD of ‘royalty free’ music or sound effects which can be used across multiple video projects – saving you the hassle of acquiring permissions every time for different music.
Or you might buy a CD of royalty free images (clip art, for example) that you can use across various design projects.
If you’re studying in a school of media, or working in a large media organisation, they will probably have some royalty free media for students or employees to use – so ask around to find out what’s available.
But don’t use it for the sake of it: the quality can vary. In addition, many other media projects may have relied on the same libraries, so you can lose distinctiveness.
Thankfully for those who want more diversity, the internet has made new types of royalty free media – and new pricing – possible, as a wider range of photographers and other media creators can now sell their work through online marketplaces.
Stock.XCHNG deserves special mention, boasting that it is the world’s “leading free stock photo site” and hosting thousands of royalty free images. Even if the image is ‘free’, however, it’s only free under the terms of the licence – so always check them.
You can find many more sources by searching for articles like this on the ‘best places to get free images’.
CC的意思是 carbon copy, FYI是 For your information 的縮寫，兩者都是差不多的功能，意思是：
你：How are things going?一切都還好吧？ 老外：I’m in a bit of a pickle.. 我最近有點小麻煩..
I’m in a catastrophic situation with possibly fatal consequences!! 我最近遇到大麻煩了，可能會有致命後果。 老外：Chen, You must come for dinner. /Pop around anytime! 陳，隨時來我家吃飯啊。 你：Ok, I will go to your house this Friday. 好的，我周五就來。
It’s not an invitation, I’m just being polite. 我不是真的邀請你哦，我只是禮貌而已。
(Italians) are very clever. 意大利人太聰明了。
Italians are very sly 意大利人太狡猾了
A compliment to (Italians) 哦，這是誇意大利人呢
I hear what you say 我聽到你所說了
I disagree and do not want to discuss it further. 我完全不同意，也不想再討論了
He accepts my point of view 他接受了我的觀點
That is a very brave proposal 真是很勇敢的提議
You are insane 你是瘋了吧
He thinks I have courage 他覺得我挺有勇氣的
Quite good 不錯
A bit disappointing 令人掃興
Quite good 我做得還不錯
I’ll bear it in mind 我會記住的
I’ve forgotten it already 記住才怪，我已經忘記了
They will probably do it 他們極可能會做……
I almost agree 我基本同意
I don’t agree at all 我才不同意
He’s not far from agreement 他基本同意了
Right, then, I suppose I really should start thinking about possibly making a move… 我想我要準備走了
He’s considering making a move, but he’s still not sure.. 他想走了，但還沒確定
Just whenever you get a minute… 你有時間的話
When you get the time… 是說有時間的話
I’m sure it’ll be fine.. 我相信會好轉的
I fully expect the situation to deteriorate rapidly… 我恨不得情況急轉直下才好
Folks, if you are working or actively participate in video field production or documentary films, you should have read Anthony Q. Artis’s “Shut Up And Shoot – Documentary Guide". It’s a filmmaking guide book to teach you how to create professional video packages with limited resources, it also talks about some common mistakes in making videos. I think it’s more like a user-friendly guide book rather than a boring, thousand-page-manual or textbook or something like that. It’s a highly recommended book for all documentary filmmakers. Indeed, this book has been adopted as a textbook for many film schools and colleges.
About 6 years ago, Anthony had another user-friendly guide book for freelance videographers, it’s called “Shut Up And Shoot – Freelance Video Guide". This book is considered as an addition or supplement to the “Shut Up And Shoot – Documentary Guide", more than that, this book tells you how to create good marketing videos, music videos, and live event videos, etc. The book also provides step-by-step guidance on planning, shooting, lighting and recording the most common freelance video projects. On the other hand, it covers production strategies and how to deal with your clients. Everything is in that one book, I bought this book and I’m very honored to have Anthony’s autograph just before I moved to Macau.
If you are interested to be a freelance videographer, or you are currently working as a videographer and wish to learn how to make different kinds of videos, “Shut Up And Shoot – Freelance Video Guide" is just for you.
Then I think it was about 2014, (correct me if I’m wrong) Anthony has updated his first “Shut Up And Shoot" series, which is “Shut Up And Shoot – Documentary Guide (Second Edition)". Unfortunately, I have been in Macau, and I had no way to get it in Macau since the book is not sold overseas. Luckily, I have my friends in Macau who recently traveled to US for their honeymoon to have this newest “Shut Up And Shoot" book for me. When I first got this book last night, I felt excited about what the book covers, this new book doesn’t only cover step-by-step guidance on documentary and freelance filmmaking, like planning, shooting, lighting, etc., but it also covers the most updated about DSLR cameras, new lighting gear, visual storytelling, post-production techniques and hiring professional crews. Even more than that, the book also covers new sections on fundraising, 4k format, shooting on iPhone, just to name a few.
This new book, along with Anthony’s two previous books, is my best companion as a freelance videographer. Therefore, I strongly recommend everyone who is interested in filmmaking to have these three books. Trust me, this is the best filmmaking book I ever had.
各位朋友，如果您是做外景拍攝或紀錄片製作的話，這本書您一定要看：Anthony Q. Artis’s “Shut Up And Shoot – Documentary Guide"。這本書教您如何用最少的資源去拍攝最專業的影片，當中也有提到一些拍攝時常見的錯誤，這本書的英文用語比較貼近日常化，不像那些上千頁的說明書。大約6年前，Anthony還為自由攝影師提供了另一個用戶友好的指南，叫做 “Shut Up And Shoot – Freelance Video Guide"。這本書被認為是“Shut Up And Shoot – Documentary Guide”的補充，但它涵蓋更多內容，包括如何製作好的營銷影片，音樂影片和直播活動影片等，除此之外，這本書還提供了規劃，拍攝，照明和錄製最常見的自由視頻的分步指導。一切都在那本書中，我很榮幸在我搬到澳門之前我得到這本書以及Anthony的簽名。
大概2014年左右（如果我錯了就請糾正我）Anthony更新了他的第一個“Shut Up And Shoot – Documentary Guide”系列，這是“Shut Up And Shoot – Documentary Guide（第二版）”。不幸的是，我一直在澳門，我沒有辦法在澳門買到這本書，因為這本書沒有出售在海外。幸運的是，我最近有我在澳門的朋友，他們最近結婚並前往美國度蜜月，回澳門後為我帶來這本最新的“Shut Up And Shoot – Documentary Guide（第二版）”。當我昨晚第一次得到這本書的時候，我感到很興奮，因為這本新書不僅涵蓋了紀錄片和自由電影製作的一步一步的指導，如規劃，拍攝，照明等，但也涵蓋了有關數碼單反相機，新的照明設備，視覺講故事， 後期製作和招聘專業人員。甚至更多的是，這本書還涵蓋了關於籌款，4k格式，iPhone拍攝，僅舉幾例。